Punjab – A State of Joy – India


The most skillfully-known place of North India is Punjab. A place of praise, happiness, food, masti (Joy), farming, matter and many more.

This confess is attached by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The manner capital is located in Chandigarh, a Union Territory and next the capital of the neighboring to divulge of Haryana.

After the partition of India in 1947, the Punjab province of British India was estranged amid India and Pakistan. The Indian Punjab was not speaking as regards the basis of language in 1966. It was estranged into 3 parts. Haryanvi speaking areas were carved out as Haryana, Hilly regions and Pahari speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh closely the current own happening of Punjab.

Punjab is the deserted Sikh majority make a clean breast in India in addition to Sikhs rouse thing 57.69% of the population.

Agriculture is the largest industry in Punjab. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial facilities, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, tourism, fertilizers, bicycles, garments, and the supervision of pine oil and sugar.

Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill nature in India, which are located in “Steel Town“Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district. It is also known for the sports hub Jalandhar.

Why Punjab pronounce is? (Meaning of Punjab)

The word Punjab is a compound of the Persian words panj (five) and b (waters). Thus Panjb approximately speaking means “the home of five rivers“. The five rivers are the Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jehlum (with spelled Jhelum). Traditionally, in English, there used to be a forgive article past the publicize, i.e. “The Punjab”.[7] The proclaim is with sometimes spelled as “Panjab”. While the Greeks already referred to Punjab as Pentapotamia, an inland delta of five converging rivers,[8] the state Punjab was unchangeable to the region by the Central Asian Turkic conquerors of India, and popularized by the Turco-Mongol Mughals. Enterprise and endeavor, these two words symbolize the necessary animations of the people of Punjab.

Table of Contents

History of Punjab

During the era behind the epic Mahabharata was written, roughly 800-400 BCE, Punjab was known as Trigarta and ruled by Katoch kings. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of the Punjab region when cities such as Rupar.

The Vedic Civilization strengthen along down the Sarasvati River to lid most of northern India including Punjab. This civilization shaped subsequent cultures in the Indian subcontinent. The Punjab region was conquered by many ancient empires including the Gandhara, Nandas, Mauryas, Shungas, Kushans, Guptas, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas and Hindu Shahis. The furthest eastern extent of Alexander the Great’s exploration was along the Indus River. Agriculture flourished and trading cities such as Jalandhar, Sangrur and Ludhiana grew in huge quantity.[insinuation needed]

Due to its location, the Punjab region came out cold constant fierceness and involve from both west and east. Punjab faced invasions by the Achaemenids, Greeks, Scythians, Turks, and Afghans. This resulted in the Punjab witnessing centuries of rancorous bloodshed. Its culture combines Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, Sikh and British influences.

Map of at the forefront Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). Realms or tribes are labelled black, Foreign tribes mentioned in to come Vedic texts periwinkle, Vedic shakhas in green. Rivers are labelled blue. The Thar desert is marked ocher.

The native Punjab region is now separated into several units: West Punjab (now in Pakistan), portions of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa such as the Gandharar region, the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh and the Indian Union territory of Chandigarh. The regions of Azad Kashmir and Jammu have plus been historically similar following the Punjab.

The Punjab is the ‘Sapta Sindhu’ region mentioned in the Rig Veda, the seven rivers are:

  • Saraswati (thought to be the wisdom day Ghaggar),
  • Satadru/Shutadri (Sutlej),
  • Vipasa (Beas),
  • Asikani, Chandrabhaga (Chenab),
  • Iravati (Ravi),
  • Vitasta/Vet (Jhelum)
  • Sindhu (Indus).

Among the timeless books that were wholly or partly composed in this region are the subsequent to.

  • Rigveda
  • Grammar of Sakatayana
  • Ashtadhyayi of Pini
  • Nirukta of Yaska
  • Charaka Samhita
  • Mahabharata along in the tune of the Bhagavad Gita
  • Brihatkatha of Gunadya
  • Bakhshali Manuscript

The world’s oldest academic circles Takshashila flourished here, even in the back the Buddha’s birth. The Brahmins of this region are called ‘Saraswata’ after the legendary Saraswati river region, following known for the ashramas of the rishis.

Hinduism has been prevalent in Punjab back historical become old in the back the start of Islam and birth of Sikhism in Punjab. Some of the influential Sikh figures such as Guru Nanak, Banda Singh Bahadur, Bhai Mati Das, all originated from Hindu families of Punjab. Many of Punjab’s Hindus converted to Sikhism. In fact, Punjabi Hindus can smack their roots from the become prehistoric of the Vedas. Many militant hours of day cities in Indian Punjab and Pakistani Punjab are yet named from that times once Lahore, Jalandhar, Chandigarh and hence concerning the order of. Examples of Punjabi Hindus tallying the former Prime ministers of India I.K. Gujral and Gulzari Lal Nanda and former Indian cricketer Kapil Dev and scientist Hargobind Khorana.

History of Sikhs in Punjab

The roots of Sikhism began at the become pass of the conquest of northern India by Babur. His grandson, Akbar, supported religious official pardon and after visiting the langar of Guru Amar Das had a favourable appearance of Sikhism. As a after effects of his visit he donated house to the langar and had a determined association taking into account the Sikh Gurus until his death in 1605.[13] His successor, Jahangir, motto the Sikhs as a diplomatic threat. He arrested Guru Arjun Dev because of Sikh child maintenance for Khusrau Mirza[14] and ordered him to be put to death by torture. Guru Arjan Dev’s martyrdom led to the sixth Guru, Guru Har Gobind, declaring Sikh sovereignty in the opening of the Akal Takht and the opening of a fort to defend Amritsar.

Jahangir attempted to establish authority on peak of the Sikhs by imprisoning Guru Har Gobind at Gwalior. He felt compelled to pardon him subsequent to he began to be anxious premonitions of an in front and gruesome death. The Guru refused to be released unless the dozens of Hindu princes imprisoned when him were moreover arranged approachable, to which Jahangir the complete. Sikhism did not have any supplement issues taking into account the Mughal Empire until the death of Jahangir in 1627. His successor, Shah Jahan “took offense” at Guru Har Gobind’s sovereignty and after a series of assaults a propos Amritsar forced the Sikhs to retreat to the Sivalik Hills.[15] Guru Har Gobind’s successor, Guru Har Rai maintained the guruship in the Sivalik Hills by defeating local attempts to snatch Sikh home and taking a asexual role in the aptitude trouble along together in the midst of Aurangzeb and Dara Shikoh for control of the Timurid dynasty.

The ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, moved the Sikh community to Anandpur and travelled extensively to visit and preach in Sikh communities in defiance of Mughal flavor. He aided Kashmiri Pandits in avoiding conversion to Islam and was arrested and confronted by Aurangzeb. When offered a choice together in the midst of conversion or death, he chose to die rather than compromise his principles and was executed.[16] Guru Gobind Singh assumed the guruship in 1675 and to avoid battles gone Sivalik Hill Rajas moved the guruship to Paunta. He built a large fort to guard the city and garrisoned an army to guard it. The growing facility of the Sikh community frightened Sivalik Hill Rajas, who attempted to violent behavior the city, but the Guru’s forces routed them at the Battle of Bhangani. He moved concerning to Anandpur and confirmed the Khalsa, a whole army of baptised Sikhs, in the region of 30 March 1699. The opening of the Khalsa allied the Sikh community once-door to various Mughal-backed claimants to the guruship.

In 1701, a accrue army composed of the Sivalik Hill Rajas and the Mughal army out cold Wazir Khan attacked Anandpur and, taking into account a retreat by the Khalsa, were defeated by the Khalsa at the Battle of Muktsar. Banda Singh Bahadur was an ascetic who converted to Sikhism after meeting Guru Gobind Singh at Nanded. A rushed become old-fashioned by now his death, Guru Gobind Singh ordered him to uproot Mughal come happening when the money for a ruling in Punjab and gave him a letter that commanded all Sikhs to connect him. After two years of gaining supporters, Banda Singh Bahadur initiated an agrarian uprising by breaking going on the large estates of Zamindar families and distributing the flaming to the poor Sikh, Hindu and Muslim peasants who farmed the flaming.

Banda Singh Bahadur started his disorder gone the wipe out of Mughal armies at Samana and Sadhaura and the mayhem culminated in the destroy of Sirhind. During the disorder, Banda Singh Bahadur made a narrowing of destroying the cities in which Mughals had been cruel to Sikhs, including executing Wazir Khan in revenge for the deaths of Guru Gobind Singh’s sons, Baba Zorawar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh after the Sikh victory at Sirhind.[19] He ruled the territory surrounded by the Sutlej River and the Yamuna River, received a capital in the Himalayas at Lohgarh, and struck coinage in the names of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh.

Sutlej states

The Sutlej states were a bureau of states in broadminded Punjab and Haryana states lying in the middle of the Sutlej River in excuse to the north, the Himalayas happening for the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District upon the west. These states were ruled by the Scindhia dynasty of the Maratha Empire. Various Sikh sardars and postscript Rajas of the Cis-Sutlej states paid tributes to the Marathas until the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, after which the Marathas free this territory to the British.[20] The Cis-Sutlej states included Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla, and Faridkot.

Sikh Empire

The Sikh Empire (18011849) was forged by Maharajah Ranjit Singh upon the foundations of the Khalsa from a buildup of autonomous Sikh misls, creating a unified political own going on. The empire lengthy from the Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in the north, to Sindh in the south, and Tibet in the east. The main geographical footprint of the empire was the Punjab region. The religious demography of the Sikh Empire was Muslim (70%), Sikh (17%), Hindu (13%).

After his sworn publication in 1801 as Maharajah, Ranjit Singh began the modernisation of the Punjab Army. All the Misl leaders who were affiliated behind the Army had been nobility, usually considering long and prestigious intimates histories in Punjab. Ranjit Singh introduced several added commanders, some of them European, and a toting occurring 52,000 ably-trained and equipped professional-grade irregulars taking into account a significant multi-religious component. In partner in crime, the army was equipped furthermore ground artillery, turning it into a premier case force.

After Ranjit Singh’s death in 1839, the empire was deeply weakened by internal divisions and embassy mismanagement. This opportunity was used by the British Empire to commencement the Anglo-Sikh Wars. A series of betrayals of the Sikhs by some prominent leaders in the army led to its downfall. Maharaja Gulab Singh and Raja Dhian Singh were the pinnacle generals of the army.

The Sikh Empire was finally dissolved, after a series of wars when the British at the fall of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, into remove princely states and the British province of Punjab, which were arranged statehood. Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was formed in Lahore as a concord once representative of the British Crown.

Punjab Province (British India)

The Sutlej states, including Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla, and Faridkot, were knocked out the suzerainty of the Scindhia dynasty of the Maratha Empire, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, following Marathas at a loose put an cancel to this territory to the British. During the engagement, some of the states in the region gave their allegiance to British General Gerard Lake. At the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Maratha War, an 1809 taking again gone Ranjit Singh, ruler of the Sikh Empire west of the Sutlej, brought these states knocked out formal British sponsorship.

Ranjit Singh’s death in the summer of 1839 brought embassy disorder, and the subsequent battles of getting goodwill of and the bloody infighting together as well as the factions at court weakened the disclose. By 1845 the British had moved 32,000 troops to the Sutlej frontier to safe their northernmost possessions as well as-door-door-door to the finishing struggles in the Punjab. In late 1845, British and Sikh troops engaged near Firozpur, start the First Anglo-Sikh War. The conflict finished the once year, and the territory along along as well as the Sutlej and the Beas was ceded to British Company judge in India, along considering Kashmir, which was sold to Gulab Singh of Jammu, who ruled Kashmir as a British vassal.

As a condition of the friendship accord, some British troops, surrounded by a resident political agent and subsidiary officials, were left in the Punjab to oversee the regency of Maharaja Dhalip Singh, a youngster. The Sikh army was shortened greatly in size. In 1848, out-of-operate Sikh troops in Multan revolted, and a British ascribed was killed. Within a few months, the unrest had revolutionize throughout the Punjab, and British troops following back again invaded. The British prevailed in the Second Anglo-Sikh War, and out cold the Treaty of Lahore in 1849, the Punjab was annexed by the British East India Company, and Dhalip Singh was pensioned off. The Punjab became a province of British India, although a number of little states, most notably Patiala, Kapurthala, Faridkot, Nabha, and Jind, retained local rulers in auxiliary alliances subsequent to the British, also the rulers retaining their own internal sovereignty but recognising British suzerainty.

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919 occurred in Amritsar. In 1930, the Indian National Congress proclaimed independence from Lahore. In March 1940, the all-India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding the foundation of a remove insist from Muslim majority areas in India. The obscurity of the Lahore Resolution sparked violent protests, in which Punjab became a central stage.

In 1946, gigantic communal tensions and molest erupted along in the middle of Punjab’s Muslim majority and the Hindu and Sikh minorities. The Muslim League attacked the admin of Unionist Punjabi Muslims, Sikh Akalis and the Congress and led to its downfall.[quotation needed] Unwilling to be cowed alongside, Sikhs and Hindus counter-attacked,[mention needed] and the resulting bloodshed left the province in gigantic sickness. Both Congress and League leaders totally to partition Punjab upon religious lines, a precursor to the wider partition of the country.

In 1947 the Punjab Province of British India was partitioned along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. Huge numbers of people were displaced, and there was much intercommunal maltreatment. Following independence, several little Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, acceded to the Union of India and were allied into the PEPSU. In 1956 this was integrated bearing in mind the confess of East Punjab to make a late accrual, greater than before Indian divulge called usefully “Punjab“.

The undivided Punjab, of which Pakistani Punjab forms a major region today, was dwelling to a large minority population of Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs until 1947, apart from the Muslim majority.

Immediately considering independence in 1947, and due to the ensuing communal publicize-calling and scare, most Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus who found themselves in Pakistan migrated to India as part of the quarrel of populations.

Punjabi Muslims were uprooted similarly from their homes in East Punjab, which now forms share of India.[31] More than seven million moved to Pakistan, and furthermore more six million arranged in Punjab. In 1950, two subsidiary states were recognised by the Indian constitution: the Indian share of the former British province of Punjab became the heavens of East Punjab, even though the princely states of the region were amassed into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). Himachal Pradesh was difficult created as a bond territory from several princely states in the hills.

Geography of Punjab

Punjab is in northwestern India and has an place of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 sq mi). It extends from the latitudes 29.30 North to 32.32 North and longitudes 73.55 East to 76.50 East. It is bounded upon the west by Pakistan, upon the north by Jammu and Kashmir, upon the northeast by Himachal Pradesh and upon the south by Haryana and Rajasthan.

Most of the Punjab lies in a fertile, alluvial plain following many rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system. A fashion member in crime of undulating hills extends along the northeastern part of the disclose at the foot of the Himalayas. Its average height is 300 metres (980 ft) above sea level, once a range from 180 metres (590 ft) in the southwest to beyond 500 metres (1,600 ft) roughly the northeast fix. The southwest of the confess is semiarid, eventually merging into the Thar Desert. The Shiwalik Hills extend along the northeastern share of the own happening at the foot of the Himalayas.

The soil characteristics are influenced to a limited extent by the topography, vegetation and parent rock. The variation in soil profile characteristics are much more pronounced because of the regional climatic differences. Punjab is at odds into three flattering regions upon the basis of soil types: southwestern, central, and eastern.

Punjab falls under seismic zones II, III, and IV. Zone II is considered a low-irregular risk zone; zone III is considered a self-disciplined-uncharacteristic risk zone; and zone IV is considered a high-broken risk zone.

Climate of Punjab

The geography and subtropical latitudinal location of Punjab guide to large variations in temperature from month to month. Even even though unaccompanied limited regions experience temperatures out cold 0 C (32 F), arena frost is commonly found in the majority of Punjab during the winter season. The temperature rises gradually like high humidity and overcast skies. However, the rise in temperature is steep subsequent to the make public is true and humidity is low.

The maximum temperatures usually occur in mid-May and June. The temperature remains above 40 C (104 F) in the complete region during this grow pass-fashioned. Ludhiana recorded the highest maximum temperature at 46.1 C (115.0 F) taking into consideration Patiala and Amritsar recording 45.5 C (113.9 F). The maximum temperature during the summer in Ludhiana remains above 41 C (106 F) for a duration of one and a half months. These areas experience the lowest temperatures in January. The sun rays are sloping during these months and the chilly winds run the temperature at daytime.

Punjab experiences its minimum temperature from December to February. The lowest temperature was recorded at Amritsar (0.2 C (32.4 F)) and Ludhiana stood second once 0.5 C (32.9 F). The minimum temperature of the region remains asleep 5 C (41 F) for around two months during the winter season. The highest minimum temperature of these regions in June is greater than the daytime maximum temperatures experienced in January and February. Ludhiana experiences minimum temperatures above 27 C (81 F) for forward again two months. The annual average temperature in every one of come clean is back hint to 21 C (70 F). Further, the mean monthly temperature range varies between 9 C (48 F) in July to together surrounded by reference to 18 C (64 F) in November.

Seasons of Punjab

Punjab experiences three main seasons. They are:

  1. Hot Season (mid-April to the subside of June)
  2. Rainy Season (into the future July to the fall of September)
  3. Cold Season (to the lead December to the subside of February).

Apart from these three, the feel experiences transitional seasons behind:

  • Pre-summer season (March to mid-April): This is the time of transition moreover winter and summer.
  • Post-monsoon season (September to subside of November): This is the become primordial of transition surrounded by monsoon and winter seasons.

Summer season of Punjab

Punjab starts experiencing mildly hot temperatures in February. However, the actual summer season commences in mid-April. The place experiences pressure variations during the summer months. The atmospheric pressure of the region remains a propos 987 millibar during February and it reaches 970 millibar in June.

Rainy season of Punjab

The monsoon brings joy to the agricultural sector as farmers become utterly energetic. Punjab’s rainy season begins in first week of July as monsoon currents generated in the Bay of Bengal bring rain to the region.

Winter of Punjab

Temperature variation is minimal in January. The seek night and hours of day temperatures slip to 5 C (41 F) and 12 C (54 F), respectively. The winter season in northern Punjab is a blight for the poor who cannot arrange for guidance contiguously the cold.

Post-Monsoon transitional season of Punjab

The monsoon begins to condense by the second week of September. This brings a gradual regulate in climate and temperature. The era in the midst of October and November is the transitional time amongst monsoon and winter seasons. Weather during this mature is generally fair and teetotal.

Post-Winter transitional season of Punjab

The effects of winter diminish by the first week of March. The hot summer season commences in mid-April. This epoch is marked by occasional showers taking into account sing the praises of storms and squalls which cause extensive damage to crops. The winds remain teetotal and affectionate during the last week of March, commencing the harvest era.

Animals and natural world of Punjab

A few of the rivers in Punjab have dangerous species of crocodiles. The descent of silk from silkworms is option industry that flourishes in the disclose. Production of bee honey is finished in some parts of Punjab. The southern plains are desert in flames; for that defense, camels can be seen. Buffaloes chafe the length of together surrounded by than reference to the banks of rivers. The northeastern pension is quarters to animals amongst horses. The desert place has dangerous species of snakes once the cobra and sangehur. Wildlife sanctuaries have many more species of wild animals in imitation of the otter, wild boar, wildcat, fruit bat, hog deer, in the atmosphere fox, magpie and mongoose. Naturally-formed forests can be seen in the Shivalik ranges in the districts of Ropar, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur. Patiala is domicile to the Bir reforest though the wetlands place in Punjab is dwelling to the competently-known Mand forest.

Botanical gardens exist throughout Punjab. There is a zoological park and a tiger safari park, as nimbly as three parks dedicated to deer.

The confess bird is the baz (northern goshawk). (Melierax poliopterus), the aerate animal is the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), and the disclose tree is the shisham (Dalbergia sissoo).

Culture of Punjab

Women at cultural matter

The culture of Punjab has many elements including music such as bhangra, an extensive religious and non-religious dance tradition, a long chronicles of poetry in the Punjabi language, a significant Punjabi film industry which dates relief to past Partition, a vast range of cuisine which has become widely skillfully-liked abroad, and a number of seasonal and harvest festivals such as Lohri,[63] Basant, Vaisakhi and Teeyan,[64][65][66] all of which are very praised in linked to the religious festivals of India.

Women using Charkha

A kissa is a Punjabi language oral version-telling tradition that has a union of origins ranging from the Arabian peninsula to Iran and Afghanistan.

Punjabi jutti

Punjabi wedding traditions and ceremonies are a hermetic postscript of Punjabi culture. Marriage ceremonies are known for their affluent rituals, songs, dances, food and dresses, which have evolved on summit of many centuries.

A Dance Style (Bhangra)

Bhangra and Giddha are forms of dance and music that originated in the Punjab region. Bhangra dance began as a folk dance conducted by Punjabi farmers to celebrate the coming of the harvest season. The specific moves of Bhangra reflect the appearance in which villagers farmed their blazing. This hybrid dance became Bhangra. The folk dance has been popularised in the western world by Punjabis in England, Canada and the USA where competitions are held.[71] It is seen in the West as an exposure to atmosphere of South Asian culture as a entire sum.[72] Today, Bhangra dance survives in rotate forms and styles each and each and every single one one single one one on extremity of the globe including pop music, film soundtracks, collegiate competitions and cultural shows.

The folk descent of the Punjab reflects its thousands of years of records. While Majhi and Doabi are considered to be the delightful dialect of Punjabi language, there are a number of local dialects through which the people communicate. These attach Malwai and Pwadhi. The songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in these dialects.

There are a number of folk tales that are adeptly-liked in Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Sassi Punnun, Jagga Jatt, Dulla Bhatti, Puran Bhagat, Jeona Maud etc. The mystic folk songs and religious songs put in the Shalooks of Sikh gurus, Baba Farid and others.

The most renowned of the loving praise songs are Mayhiah, Dhola and Boliyan. Punjabi affectionate dances adjoin Dhamaal, Bhangra, Giddha, Dhola, and Sammi and some evolve local folk dances.[quotation needed]

Punjabi Music

Punjabi Folk Music is the period-privileged music upon the traditional musical instruments of Punjab region. Bhangra music of Punjab is renowned throughout the world.

Punjabi music has a diverse style of music, ranging from folk and Sufi to classical, notably the Punjab gharana and Patiala gharana.

Film industry

Punjab is address to the Punjabi film industry, often colloquially referred to as ‘Pollywood’. It is known for creature the fastest growing film industry in India. It is based mainly concerning Chandigarh city.

The first Punjabi film was made in 1936. Since the 2000s Punjabi cinema has seen a revival subsequent to more releases every year as soon as greater than before budgets, homegrown stars, and Bollywood actors of Punjabi descent taking portion.

Festivals and traditions

Punjabis celebrate a number of festivals which have taken a semi secular meaning and are regarded as cultural festivals by people of every religions. Some of the festivals are Bandi Chhor Divas(Diwali), Mela Maghi, Hola Mohalla, Rakhri, Vaisakhi, Lohri, Teeyan and Basant.

About TravelBrandIndia.Com 350 Articles
Travel brand India is a website for Indian or Hindustani or tourist lovers who want to know more about Indian culture, sports, music, visiting places, food etc for India.

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.